BENGUET ‘Abong’ (IP House)
Nipa huts were the original houses of the Kankana-ey and the Ibaloi of Benguet long before the coming of the Spaniards. The nipa hut is still being used as a domicile today, especially in the rural areas. It provides basic shelter from the most available and inexpensive materials and works well as protection against the wind and rain.
The house is usually elevated to shoulder height with tree stumps as protection against animals and pests. It is compact, making it easier to keep oneself warm in the cold mountains of Benguet. It is constructed out of bamboo, stick, wood and cogon grass. Tied together through the use of bamboo and rattan strips, this native house can withstand the gale-force wind during typhoons that ravage the country every year.
TRADITIONAL KALINGA HOUSE
The traditional Kalinga house, either square or rectangular, is a single room with elevated flooring. The house interior has three sections: 1) a side section called “sipi” with a sleeping bed for two persons; 2) the middle portion called “ladak” usually divided into three parts – sleeping area, dining area, and receiving area; 3) another side section which serves as the cooking area and an open space.
The cooking area called “darpong” is a square-shaped receptacle made of wooden slabs and filled with hard clay. It serves as the hearth. Here, three pieces of stones forming a triangle hold pots for cooking. Above the “darpong” is a “su-ugan” or a drying mat for palay. The open space serves as he pounding area during the rainy season or at night time.
The “dugo,” the space underneath the flooring, serves as a utility area – for stacking firewood, storage of farm implements, etc. The house consists of cogon for roofing; split bamboo for flooring; spliced and woven bamboo for the walls. It has two main doors – one leading to the house proper and the other leading to the “dugo.”
The Kalinga belong to the most distinct type of Filipino cultural community because of their unique cultural and physical attributes. They are tall, broad-shouldered, narrow-hipped, slightly dark in complexion and handsome with narrow-bridged noses. Historically, they are known as warriors and hailed by foreigners as “peacocks of the mountain” because of their elaborately colourful ceremonial attire accentuated by feathered headgears and peacock-like movements when they dance.
The social structure of the Kalinga is greatly woven by one of the most important fabrics of Filipino cultural traits that is, strong kinship. Kalinga society is based upon kinship. Thus, if carefully traced, a village is usually composed of interrelated clans tied into knots of blood and marital affinities. The whole village is structured composing a group of families of eight pairs of great-great grandparents ranging from the first to the third degree of relationship. Stratification in Kalinga societies is based on property holdings, community leadership and influence upon people. The Kalinga social system is composed of social classes such as the Pangat class, the Baknang or Kadangyan class and the Kapus or Lawa class. The Pangat class is on top of the social pyramid. It is composed of the influential head of clans with large political followings. These are the Kalinga who have gained distinction through their wisdom, leadership, bravery and sense of justice. A Pangat class member usually enjoys a high degree of respect from the community. One who holds a Bodong (Peace Pact) is considered a Pangat because he has to foot the enormous financial requirements and he possesses courage and bravery to gain the status and prestige. The Baknang or Kadangyan are the wealthy middle class. The Kapus or Lawa , the poor or the unfortunate, are the workhorses of the upper class.
The Province of Benguet serves as the gateway to the Cordillera region and is at the center of where the action is in North Luzon. It is endowed with rich human and natural resources and a unique temperate climate. The Kankana-ey are found mainly in the northern and western part of the province.
Living as a group, they developed and have carefully preserved their culture which is reflected in their customs, traditions and their cultural materials today. They make materials or tools which they use in their daily life or in the rituals they perform. These cultures and traditions of the Benguet Kankana-ey are some of the factors that attract and amaze local and international tourists.
A common ritual of the Benguet Kankana-ey is the Cañao. It is a ritual usually performed for good harvest and good health. During a Cañao, rice wine placed in a ritual jar, is served, not to mention the offering of several animals such as pigs, carabao or cow.
The Kankana-ey believes in the existence of unseen supernatural beings from heaven and from the underworld. They generally call God “Kabunian.” They call upon spirits with offerings of animals, wine, food and other desired and/or prescribed materials.
Despite the fast pace of economic development, the Kankana-ey still observe and practice their rich culture. The pagan worship attributed to the people of Benguet does not find relevance in the belief system of the people. It is actually a taboo for the natives to display images in their homes for purposes of worship, except for the love of art. The belief system of the natives shows that above all the gods and goddesses, there is “Kabunian”, the most high.
THE IFUGAO HOUSE
It is a small enclosed structure, a one-room affair that serves as living and sleeping room, kitchen and dining room. It is elevated above the ground by four posts made of sturdy tree-trunks with roots intact. It has solid panels for walls and tightly thatched roofing.
The two main base girders – the horizontal support (at the front and back) just on top of the posts are held to these posts by dowels. No nails are used. The Ifugao carve each part of the house as interlocking pieces, the girders fitting into the supporting posts. On top of the girders is a single-piece structure to support the flooring and on the four corners are the four king posts which bolt together the ends of the two base girder, the side girders and the rest of the structure.
Two girders are placed in the right and left uppers structure to support the roofing. A girder which is a one-piece structure spans these right and left girders and on which rests the upper king posts. Rafters are made of seasoned bilau reeds and bamboos or betel palm slats. The roof is usually made of bilau leaves of cogon grass. The rooftop has side openings where smoke escapes. The walls are made of wood or woven bamboo slats and the floor, of wood. These are also shelves around the four sides of the house at the level of the walls. These are used for storing plates, pots and other household items.
The house has only one entrance opening carved by a detachable door hanging or attached on a rope or rattan where the ladder is placed but there is a smaller backdoor for throwing things down or for emergency exit.
The Ifugao believe that spirits dwell in all natural things and they try to keep out the evil spirits by engraving on the door or on any conspicuous part of the house the figure of a lizard or a serpent believed to provide protection.
At night, the ladder is pulled up inside and the family is safe from human and animal intruders.
Leonardo Concepcion, in his lectures on “Architecture in the Philippines” presented by the National Museum and sponsored by US Ambassador and Mrs. William C. McBlair, Jr. writes.
“Let us look first at the Ifugao building, which is one of the most perfect forms of pre-Spanish handcraft architecture. . . This house is of the most perfect kind of handcraft architecture that we have in the Philippines because each part has a distinct use. The house is a statement of the basic characteristic of the Ifugao people.”
SUBANEN – COMMUNITY PROFILE
Some of the artist from Kumalarang, Lapuyan and Lakewood.
Kumalarang, an hour away from Pagadian, is a third class municipality equally dominated by the Subanen, Moro, and local settlers. The Moro settlers live near the river banks of Kumalarang. The Subanen stay in the highlands while the local settlers live in the heart of the municipality. The Subanen are farmers; the Moro are traders while the local settlers are fisher folks. But the three groups have professionals who work in government agencies and enterprises.
Lapuyan is also an hour travel from Pagadian City. Ninety per cent of the populace are Subanen and ten per cent are Moro and local settlers. Most of the government officials are Subanen. The dialect spoken in the municipality is also Subanen. Farming is the source of income of the people. Since many Subanen in Lapuyan are professionals, most of the government employees are also Subanen. They have Christian alliance.
Lakewood is a high land blessed with a beautiful lake, originally the source of food of the residents. Sixty-five per cent of the populace are Subanen. They are farmers who have embraced Christianity. Like any other Subanen, they also practice old rituals during harvest and other festivities. Their spoken dialect is also called Subanen.
The traditional house of the Subanen is typically a highlander’s architecture 12 x 12 feet in area. The floor is 8 feet from the ground, has round timber used as stairs. The house is made of round timber for its posts, nipa leaves for the roof, and the wall and the floor is made of gbahe (fish tail palm). Originally, no nails were used to connect all the parts of the house. The Subanen only used rattan strips tied all over to connect the parts. The typical Subanen house is still the dwelling of the Subanen in the hinterland of Zamboanga del Sur.
Found in the hinterland of Panay and Negros, the Bukidnon, numbering about 159 thousand, are a unique people holding on to their centuries-old culture against the backdrop of the present society. The Bukidnon are fair-skinned, medium in height and built have straight to wavy black hair, eyes which are slightly slant and upturned nose. They are the original inhabitants of the islands, though they have been assimilated in varying degrees with the mainstream Visayan society. They are associated with the names of the main river system. Iloilo “Halawodnon” after the ancient name of Jalaur River (Halawod); “Panayanon” in Capiz after Pan-ay River; “Akeanon” in Aklan after Akean river; “Kurlanos” in Kabankalan City after Kuruk-an (Carol-an) river. The “Iraynons” meaning “dwellers of the upstream” of Antique and Northern Aklan are also Bukidnon due to the fact that their culture is also the same as that of their cousins on the Eastern side. They are famous for their rich oral traditions such as Talda (repartee), Dilot (love song), Ambahan (Extemporaneous Song), Ulawhay (Long Chanted Narratives); and their “Binanog” dance (meaning “way of the hawks”) and the recently discovered unabridged version of the Hinilawod Epic.
PANAY BUKIDNON IP HOUSE
TRADITIONAL BUKIDNON HOUSE
The traditional Panay Bukidnon house uses cogon for roofing. The house normally has an elevated floor of about 5-6 feet high using sturdy round timber poles while the floor is made of bamboo laths. The walls are made of woven bulo (bamboo) or dulit (dried tree bark). Girders, beams and roof-framing are of assorted sizes of round timbers. Uway (rattan strips) are used to tie these house components together.
The main structure is an open space for sleeping, eating and dancing. The house has a receiving room or balkon used to entertain visitors and for resting during daytime. It is not elevated, and has no floors. It has a long bamboo or wooden bench instead. A wide window just above the bamboo bench ensures sufficient ventilation. The house has also the sariri– room intended for the binukot or the kept maiden; dapog – dirty kitchen, and the tambi – usually built at the back side of the main structure. The tambi serves as the backdoor entrance built a little lower than the main structure. The lower portion of the main structure is enclosed by a fence made of bamboo – and this is used to house chickens and other livestock.
ANG TUMANDOK SA NEGROS SA DUYAN SANG PAGBAG-O
(The Indigenous People of Negros Occidental)
The Ati are situated in Maricudo, Isabela. Ata or Negrito live in Brgy. Puey, Sagay City, Sitio Manara of Cadiz City and Sitio Dahunan in Don Salvador Benedicto while the Ata-Bukidnon are in Cabagtasan, San Carlos City.
The Tumandok of Negros generally appear as a native people with kinky hair. They are black and shiny skinned and have a medium built body structure.
The Tumandok are generous and hospitable. They are fond of sharing what they have to the rest of the tribesmen and to the visitors of the community. They are also fond of visiting other houses; chewing betel nuts or “mama,” comb a neighbor’s hair in search for crawling insects, squatting on floors and chatting the hours away.
In the midst of modern trends, the Tumandok still stick to their traditional beliefs and practices. They also have their traditional culture which includes their traditional dances, songs, music, folk stories, crafts and arts.
The Tumandok are animistic by nature. They have gods for the different elements of nature. Even in the presence of modern technology, they still have a resident “babaylan” to cure them of bad spirits that decide to “play tricks” on their bodies.
They are also fiercely loyal to family and to their native pride and culture. They do not feel shame that they are natives. The elders do everything they can to sustain their old customs and traditions. They are very protective of their young children and teach them as early as they can about their traditional ways. They hope that their culture and existence will not only be a part of history books and scientific journals but will go down as living descendants of the next generation to come.
PALA’WAN IP HOUSE
Kalangbanwa is made from the indigenous materials found in Palawan. Builders use uway and some nails to ensure the durability of the house which is usually located in the upland or midland area of the place. Bamboo, rattan, wood, and cogon are the materials used to build the house.
The settlers believe that the entrance door should face the East and the kitchen to the West to maximize the entry of good luck to the family. The house has stairs and has a dirty kitchen. During this time, settlers use salong as their lamp.
PALAWANI AND MOLBOG
Palawani and Molbog IP House
The head of the family usually initiates the building of the house. The house is big and can accommodate a big family. A unique characteristic of this house is the absence of windows and room divisions that depicts openness of the family, and also a wide areaduring special occasions. The house has a terrace to accommodate visitors during special gatherings. Rattan, used for trying the house’s components, the nipa for walling are the indigenous materials used in this house. The builders have a special skill in tying the rattan to ensure the resiliency of the house. The people believe that they invite good luck if they put coins under the house post before building the house. The doors face towards the direction where the sun rises.
The Jama Mapun, on closer examination, may not be a distinct ethnic group. The Jama Mapun are rather another Sama sub-group. Their language, called Pullun Mapun, is just a dialect of the Sama language.
The Jama Mapun inhabit the Cagayan de Sulu and Turtle (Taganak) Islands, and are also found in Southern Palawan. The word Jama is a variation of the word Sama, and denotes west, i.e., west of Jolo Island as “East” and their own Cagayan de Sulu as “West,” a concept derived from the time when the Jama Mapun had a strong client relationship with the Sultanate of Sulu centered in Jolo. The Jama Mapun earn their livelihood much like the other Sama groups except that some also cultivate upland rice. The latter activity is maily done in Southern Palawan.
The Jama Mapun tribe is often mistakenly identified as Samal Badjao, considering the fact that its members mingle with these two tribes. The only distinction of this ethnic group is that its people originally occupied the overlapping jurisdiction of the sultans of Sulu and Brunei and later on mixed with the Samal and the Badjao.
The Jama Mapun are found in Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi and in Southern Palawan.
Marriage among the Jama Mapun normally involves the payment of a bridge price by the groom. Marriage among first degree cousins is common.
In the socio-political organization of the Jama Mapun, their datu personifies the secular sector while the salip represents the sacred order. Both share between them the function of social control and justice.
JAMA MAPUN IP HOUSE
LUMA (BAUNG BAUNG)
This traditional house can be found in the midland area. The main structure has an open space, without division. Usually, people celebrate wedding, baptismal and other gathering inside the house where they sing their traditional music. They also perform dances outside the house along the perimeter area.
The Luma house uses nipa shingles for roofing, and the wall is made of bamboo tadtad. The doors have exact measurement that the katutubo follow and these should face towards the direction where the sun rises.
The Bagobo constitute one of the largest groups among the indigenous peoples of Southern Mindanao. They are composed of three (3) sub-groups, namely the TAGABAWA, the CLATA or GUIANGAN and the UBO. Although they belong to one socio-linguistic group, BAGOBO, they also differ in some ways, such as the dialects, dance steps, costumes and their color preferences to mention a few.
They are referred to as ethnic because they are the people whose distinctive identity is rooted in history. From the beginning and up to the present, the Bagobo are the predominant inhabitants of the vast areas extending from the west coast of Davao Gulf to the high reaches of Davao’s famous and significant mountain ranges of Mt. Apo or Apo Sandawa to the tribal people.
Apo Sandawa happens to be the sacred grounds of the Bagobo since time immemorial, valued as one among the group’s richest cultural heritage. It is the homeland of the world-known Philippine eagle as well.
Today, changes can be easily observed and it is due to the influences of foreign cultures such as those of the Spaniards, Japanese, Americans and other neighboring countries. Lately, the existence CPP-NPA, the military forces and other armed groups in their ancestral domain/lands forced them to adapt and accept realities surrounding them in their struggle for survival.
These encounters also ended or drastically diminished some of the traditions, beliefs and practices and even the culture itself.
Its political structure was composed of the Chieftains called “Matanum,” the Council of Elders, the Maganis, the Babaylans and the slaves called “Al-lang” in the native dialect. The Datu can have as many wives as he can but upon the recommendation and approval of the first wife. In marriage, age is not an issue for as long as arrangements and settlements are reached, agreed upon and complied with by both parties. All conflicts and problems are finally addressed and resolved by the Chieftain with the Council of Elders.
Food is abundant enough to be able to supply the community for the next harvest season. The weavers supply the needs for clothing. In fact, a Bagobo weaver, Salinta Monon, won this year’s Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan (GAMABA) for her handloom weaving, a proof of the Bagobo artistry and craftsmanship. Environmental preservations and utilization of natural resources are properly dealt with by the people according to their tradition, practices and culture.
Today’s Bagobo have gone a long way. Though mostly are still in the hinterlands, there are also others who have become professionals such as doctors, nurses, teachers, accountants, lawyers, government employees and officials.
Who can build the house?
The person in the community who is gifted and known as the master of building the Bagobo house.
How is it built?
A ritual is being done first to determine whether the chosen location is the appropriate place for the house to be built. If the ritual indicates that the place is appropriate for building a house, the posts are then put up. Before installing the posts, a ritual is also performed to cleanse the posts and make them strong for the house. After the posts are the roof, then the flooring of the house, the stairs, the doors and windows and the ceiling.
Distinct Architecture: Design of the roof and walls.
Where it is located? Upland
Materials: Chopped bamboos, bamboos, Lawaan and rattan strips
The house is a typical Bagobo House. If a weaver lives in this house, you can find a set of AGONG in one corner and a weaving loom or materials for beadwork in another corner.
A typical Bagobo house has an attic for the female children of the family. Most of the time they sleep there and are not allowed to mingle with other people unless the parents are around. Neither are they allowed to peek at the window. Hence, the reason for having no window in the attic.
Tausug IP House
This house has high roofing, pyramidal or triangular in shape. Located in the lowland or upland area, this house uses lumber, bamboo and nipa as main materials. There is a sala to accommodate visitors. The house which consists of nine posts, speaks of the family’s dignity and stability. No one is allowed to trespass in the vicinity. Visitors can enter the house only after tendering a salam or greeting of peace.
AGTA/ITA/KABIHUG OF BICOL
In Bicol, the existing indigenous peoples (IPs) or indigenous cultural community (ICC) are locally classified into two major tribes; namely, the Agta or Itom and the Kabihug or Abian. In general, the Agta are short, stocky black people with black curly hair, deep-seated eyes and flat noses. Nomadic in nature, they travel from one place to another, in hills and mountain ranges, in search of food and a better place to stay in. They have been sporadically located in three provinces; namely, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, Albay and Camarines Norte.
Furthermore, the Kabihug of Abian are the most primitive and nomadic of the tribal groups of Agta in Bicol Region. Other tribes of the Agta have more or less similar appearances, distinctive of which is their brownish kinky interwoven hair, big deep-seated eyes with curly eyelashes, below 5 feet tall and stocky. They are found in far-flung barangays and sitios throughout the province of Camarines Norte. They originally came from the railroad towns of Ragay, Lupi, Del Gallego, Camarines Sur and from Quezon Province.
The Agta are found in the Bicol Peninsula and on the slopes of Mt. Asog, Iriga City as well as the municipalities at the slope of Mt. Isarog.
They marry at the early age of 14. In as much as they have no marriage rites, the couple simply live together as husband and wife. They practice polygamy. At present, the Agta do not subscribe to family planning, believing that marriage is meant to produce offsprings. They believe in the anito and the spirit of ancestors to whom they offer dances during rituals. (Bicol Mail, November 20, 2008. R. Perez)
THE AGTA OF BICOL
The Dumago (Thanksgiving Ritual) of the Agta is done after a good harvest (fruit crops) or after a member of the family recovers from severe illness. The leader of the group in the community or a respected balyana or healer starts the ritual and performs the chant invoking the anito or spirits in thanksgiving, with the use of coron (pot) with burned incense. The Dumago dance is performed by both balyana (healer) and some Agta men in movements that depict respect and thanksgiving for the blessings.
The Agta group will be joined by the Bicolano Cluster, representing the lowland Bicolano community, with some traditional flok songs like Sarung Banggui (isang gabi) and other folk songs like Ano daw Idong Sa Gogm, etc. the songs express the love and sentiments of the singer addressed to a loved one.
The famous PANTOMINA is a wedding dance performed by the husband and wife after the reception. The man chases the wife as though pleading to give her a kiss and suggesting that they proceed to their honeymoon. But the parents suggest that they celebrate and join them before they wind up for their honeymoon. Finally, the couple happily dance to the tune of Bicol love songs and both express commitment and love for each other till death.
The Bicol food is the Bicolano’s tangible manifestation of their characteristics. Loving and simply bold and courageous with emotions expressed openly. Hot and sizzling, as shown in their food choices and preparations. The BICOL EXPRESS with SILI-spices and PINANGAT – with GATA (coconut milk).
AGTA/TABAGON-KABILOG-DUMAGAT with Bicolano IP House
The Agta of Bicol are normally nomadic. Because of their characteristic, their houses locally known as bahey are built out of indigenous materials found in the place where they decide to settle temporarily. For wallings and some part of the roof, the bakbak (dried bark of the abaca) serves the purpose. Nipa shingles constitute most of the roofing. One very unique feature of this house is the absence of iron nails for the entire framework. Rattan is used to tie the posts and the frame of the house itself. The interior is simple and very functional with a receiving area, living room and kitchen just enough for the entire family. To keep the roofing safe and steady, bamboos are placed on top. The living room is usually without flooring; the ground serves as the flooring. Generally, the house is small and can easily be torn down should the family decide to transfer to another area.
ILOILO, CAPIZ, GUIMARAS ATI HOUSE
The Ati’s house is made of round timber, cogon grass for its roofing and its wall is made of binalantak nga bolo or small bamboos. Bamboo slats are used for the flooring. The Ati do not use nails but only ropes to secure the house. The house measures 8 by 9 square feet and it has a receiving area for visitors. The palayas or extension serves as the storage for their cooking and eating utensils as well as the cooking area of the family. The house is usually located at the upland where very few people reside.
Ang balay sang Ati indi ini dako. Naga takus lang ini sang 8’ x 10’ sq. Ft. Kag nahuman lang ini sa gin bilog nga kahoy, kawayan, bolo, huway kag cogon.
Wala nagagamit sang lansang. Ang atop nahuman sa cogon. Ang dingding nahuman sa tinadtad nga bolo, ka gang salog pinihak nga kawayan kag ginpapag-on lang ini pa agi sa pag higot sang balagon o huway.
Ka gang mayor wala ini sa hulit, may palayas ini dala na ang kusina, dapog talagoan sang mga pinggan, kag kaldero. Kag sa kiliran ara dira ang bayong nasandig nga nahuman sa kawayan.
Ka gang balay sang mga Ati ginahimo ini sa mataas nga bahin sang duta o bukid nga wala sang iban nga bisaya nga katupad para sa ila kalinong sa ila pagpoyo.
Ang mga Ati nagapati nga ang ila Dios ara sa mga tuburan o mga kahoy nga dalagko. Nagapati sila nga ang Dios sa tuburan o kakahuyan nga malapit sa tuburan makabantay sa ila. Ginahalaran nila ini sang itum nga baboy kag gina dul-ongan sang pagkaon nga nabutang sa kuron.
Kon magsakit ang tiyan sang Ati nagapati sila nga may mga malain nga espiritu nga nagahalit sa ila kag ang tawag nila sini nga masakit sinda sa tuburan.
Kon magkaingin sila, nagalisensya sila sa mga taglugar nga sila mauma sa nasambit nga lugar.
Sa tion sang tig-alani, ginapakaon nila ang mga espiritu o kalag sang mga katigulangan nga nagkalamatay na, subong man ang mga espiritu nga indi Makita nga nagapuyo sa tuburan.
Links/Related Resources About Dungog and Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines
- Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines
- Schedule of Events
- Dungog Official Website
- Photo Gallery
- Capiz Province Official Website
- Capitivating Capiz
- Roxas City
Resources About Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines
- The Philippine Indigenous Peoples’ Struggle for Land and Life: Challengig Legal Text
- National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP)
- National Commission on Culture and Arts (NCCA)
- Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines – Demographic Profile of Indigenous Peoples
- Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines – IWGIA
- Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA)-Republic Act 8371
- Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA)
- The State of Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines by EED-TFIP
- Map of Philippine Tribal People Group
- Ethnographic Map of the Philippines – c1890
by: Capiz Provincial Press Bureau/Capiz Provincial Tourism Office